Carrageenan, carrageenan also called carrageenans, is extracted from marine red alga in a hydrophilic polymer polysaccharide, is the world's three largest seaweed glue industrial products (agar, carrageenan, sodium alginate) of. Food grade carrageenan is white to yellowish brown, surface shrinkage, slightly shiny translucent flake or powder, odorless, tasteless, sticky taste. The gel formed by carrageenan is thermally reversible, which melts into a solution and forms a gel when the solution is cooled. What's the nature of carrageenan?
The gelling properties of carrageenan are mainly related to its chemical composition, structure and molecular size. The formation of carrageenan gel is divided into four stages: carrageenan was dissolved in hot water molecule as irregular curl; process temperature drop in the molecule to form a single spiral into spiral body; the temperature dropped, the formation of intermolecular double helix, for three-dimensional mesh structure. At this point there is a solidification phenomenon, the temperature drops again, double helix aggregates to form gel.
Carrageenan can dissolve in more than 70 degrees Celsius in the warm water, the general sulfate content, the more easily dissolved. In water, carrageenan is the first to form colloidal particles. Adding sucrose and glycerol can improve its dispersibility, or break the micelle with a high speed mixer to achieve dispersion effect. To promote the dissolution of carrageenan, in the food industry production, generally use more than 80 degrees of hot water to dissolve and disperse it.
In neutral or alkaline solutions, carrageenan is stable and pH 9 is the most stable, even if heated, no hydrolysis occurs. In acid solution, especially under pH=4 susceptible to acid catalyzed hydrolysis, so that the gel strength and viscosity decreased. Into Cryostasis under the state of high stability than carrageenan solution at room temperature, the degree of acid hydrolysis was much smaller than that of solution state.
The biggest difference between carrageenan and other water-soluble macromolecules is that it reacts with proteins. The sulfate on the carrageenan molecule has a strong negative charge. Protein is a kind of amphoteric substance, at below the isoelectric point of amino acids and carrageenan for holding opposite charge generated by combining precipitation at the isoelectric point of the above conditions, the two have the same charge, a multivalent cationic crosslinking agent and carrageenan as combined with the formation of hydrophilic colloid, at the isoelectric point, the multivalent cation for glue crosslinking agent and carrageenan as a combination of precipitation.
5. rheological properties
The viscosity of carrageenan solution increased exponentially with increasing concentration, and decreased exponentially with the increase of temperature. In the isothermal state, with the increase of time, the macromolecules begin to dissociate, the intermolecular entanglement decreases, and the viscosity of the solution decreases. The viscosity of carrageenan solution increases with the increase of pH, and the acidity increases to promote the dissociation of carrageenan molecules and neutralize their electrical properties, thus weakening the electrostatic attraction between the sulfated radicals. If too much alkaline hydroxide, and negatively charged molecules repel and reduce carrageenan drop so entangled, strong acid, strong alkaline conditions, the viscosity of the solution decreased.
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